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Sorry to hear about your diagnosis.
However, it sounds like your case was caught early and the tumor appears to be very small.
You are correct that once the prostate is removed, the cancer will be gone, IF the sum total of the cancer is contained within the prostate.
In your case that seems very likely.
During the operation the surgeon will biopsy the lymph glands and the tissues around the prostate.
After the operation, the removed gland will be checked by a pathologist to make sure that no cancerous tissue is found near the outer surfaces of the prostate.
If the margins are clear and nothing turns up in the nodes and adjacent tissues, it's likely that it's over and you are cured.
You should understand though, that only time will tell for sure.
Within a month or so after your operation, your PSA should fall to near undetectable levels and stay there.
The reason for the lingering concern is the possiblity that microscopic bits of the original tumor may have broken away and migrated to other parts of the body.
Because of this, you will not be considered "cured" until your blood provides a low and stable PSA reading over an extended period of time following the surgery.
That's why the testing will go on.
I don't want to discourage you because your chances for a surgical cure appear to be excellent.
The odds are overwhelmingly in your favor.
You should also know that even if the PSA begins to rise after surgery, there are other treatments such as radiation that may yet provide you a cure.